• Bagas Biyanzah Drajad Pamukhti Master of Nursing Study Program, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang, Indonesia
  • Meira Erawati Master of Nursing Study Program, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang, Indonesia
  • Muflihatul Muniroh Medical Study Program, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang, Indonesia
  • Nur Setiawati Dewi Master of Nursing Study Program, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang, Indonesia
Keywords: Experience, PLWHA, survival, living life


Background: Fear of contracting HIV in the community causes discrimination and stigma to people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) because people still consider HIV/AIDS taboo. Many of the sufferers struggle to reveal their HIV status to others, but they get negative results such as rejection, stigmatization and even discrimination which can be a high psychological burden. Stigma and discrimination against PLWHA are the main obstacles to achieving a good quality of life. Objectives: This study is intended to explore the in-depth experiences of people living with HIV/AIDS in surviving life. Methods: This research is a phenomenological case study. The sample in this study amounted to three people who were recruited from Healthy Loving Care Foundation Semarang City. The sample was determined using a purposive sampling technique according to the inclusion criteria, that is age 20 and 50 years, diagnosed with HIV/AIDS, conscious, cooperative, not experiencing cognitive, hearing and speech disorders, willing to participate in the study by signing the informed consent.  The data was collected by in-depth online interviews and then recorded in transcripts and analyzed using Amedeo Giorgi's data analysis technique. Results: This study showed that participants experience adversity due to HIV/AIDS but the participants get out of their slump by accepting their illness, taking treatment, finding a support system and becoming a positive people. The participants also in living their lives keep their illness a secret to survive so as not to experience bad stigma or discrimination. The results of this study reveal one main theme, Experiences of People living with HIV in Surviving life. Conclusion: This study found the support received by participants and the response of participants to their condition as an effort to survive their lives.


Ahmed, S., Autrey, J., Katz, I. T., Fox, M. P., Rosen, S., Onoya, D., … Bor, J. (2018). Why do people living with HIV not initiate treatment? A systematic review of qualitative evidence from low and middle-income countries. Social Science and Medicine, 213, 72–84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2018.05.048 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2018.05.048

Asrat, B., Schneider, M., Ambaw, F., & Lund, C. (2020). Effectiveness of psychological treatments for depressive symptoms among people living with HIV/AIDS in low- and middle-income countries : A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Affective Disorders, 270(1), 174–187. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2020.03.068 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2020.03.068

Basavarajaiah, D. M., & Murthy, B. N. (2020). HIV Transmission Statistical Modelling. Singapore: Spinger. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-0151-7 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-0151-7

Bhatt, B., Jindal, H., Sk, S., Malik, J. S., & Sangwan, K. (2014). Vaccination in HIV positive adults: Need to address. Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics, 10(10), 3011–3012. https://doi.org/10.4161/21645515.2014.971645 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4161/21645515.2014.971645

Cunha, G. H. da, Galvão, M. T. G., Medeiros, C. M. de, Rocha, R. P., Lima, M. A. C., & Fechine, F. V. (2016). Vaccination status of people living with HIV/AIDS in outpatient care in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases, 20(5), 487–493. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bjid.2016.07.006 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bjid.2016.07.006

Erlandson, K. M., & Karris, M. Y. (2019). HIV and Aging Reconsidering the Approach to Management of Comorbidities. Infectious Disease Clinics of North America, 33(3), 769–786. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.idc.2019.04.005 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.idc.2019.04.005

Erving, G. (1963). Stigma: Notes on the management of spoiled indentity. Englewood Cliff: Prentice-Hall Inc.

Hayes, E. V. (2020). Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. In Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, 2-Volume Set (21st ed.). Philadelphia: Elsevier Inc. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-323-52950-1.00302-3

Kahija, Y. La. (2017). Penelitian Fenomenologis : Jalan Memahami Pengalaman Hidup (G. Sudibyo, Ed.). Yogyakarta: PT Kanisius.

Kemenkes RI. (2012). Buku pedoman penghapusan stigma dan diskriminasi bagi pengelola program, petugas layanan kesehatan dan kader. Retrieved January 3, 2020, from http://perpustakaan.kemkes.go.id/inlislite3/opac/detail-opac?id=7409

Kemenkes RI. (2018). Hari AIDS sedunia, momen STOP penularan HIV: saya berani, saya sehat. Retrieved September 2, 2019, from http://www.depkes.go.id/article/view/18120300001/hari-aids-sedunia-momen-stop-penularan-hiv-saya-berani-saya-sehat-.html

Kliegman, R. M., Geme, J. W. S., Blum, N. J., Shah, S. S., Tasker, R. C., & Wilson, K. M. (2020). Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics (21st ed.). Philadelphia: Elsevier Inc. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-1-4377-0126-5.00056-2 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-1-4377-0126-5.00056-2

Limalvin, N. P., Putri, W. C. W. S., & Sari, K. A. K. (2020). Gambaran dampak psikologis, sosial dan ekonomi pada ODHA di Yayasan Spirit Paramacitta Denpasar. Directory of Open Access Journals, 11(1), 81–91. https://doi.org/10.15562/ism.v11i1.208 DOI: https://doi.org/10.15562/ism.v11i1.208

Maharani, F. (2017). Faktor -Faktor Yang Berhubungan Dengan Stigma Terhadap Orang Dengan Hiv Dan Aids (Odha). Journal Endurance, 2(2), 158–167. https://doi.org/10.22216/jen.v2i2.1300 DOI: https://doi.org/10.22216/jen.v2i2.1300

Merriam, S. B. (2009). Qualitative Research A Guide to Design and Implementation: Revised and Expand from Qualitative Research and Case Study Applications in Education (2nd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass A Wiley Brand.

Merriam, S. B., & Tisdell, E. J. (2016). Qualitative Research A Guide to Design and Implementation (4th ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass A Wiley Brand.

Mohamed Boushab, B., Fall-Malick, F.-Z., Ould Cheikh Melaïnine, M. L., & Basco, L. K. (2017). Forms of Stigma and Discrimination in the Daily Lives of HIV-Positive Individuals in Mauritania. The Open AIDS Journal, 11(1), 12–17. https://doi.org/10.2174/1874613601711010012 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2174/1874613601711010012

Moleong, L. J. (2014). Metodologi Penelitian Kualitatif (Revisi). Bandung: PT Remaja Rosdakarya Offset.

Pessin, A. (2017). The Sociology of Howard S. Becker Theory with a Wide Horizon. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226362991.001.0001

Puspita, A., Hayati, F., & Fuadah, D. Z. (2017). Stigma Masyarakat Terhadap Orang Dengan Hiv Aids (Odha). Jurnal Ilmu Kesehatan, 8(2), 151–159.

Qiao, S., Li, X., Zhou, Y., Shen, Z., Tang, Z., & Stanton, B. (2015). The role of enacted stigma in parental HIV disclosure among HIV-infected parents in China. AIDS Care, 27, 28–35. https://doi.org/10.1080/09540121.2015.1034648 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09540121.2015.1034648

Radzniwan, R., Alyani, M., Aida, J., Khairani, O., Nik Jaafar, N. R., & Tohid, H. (2016). Psychological status and its clinical determinants among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Northern Peninsular Malaysia. HIV and AIDS Review, 15(4), 141–146. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hivar.2016.11.002 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hivar.2016.11.002

Rueda, S., Mitra, S., Chen, S., Gogolishvili, D., Globerman, J., Chambers, L., … Rourke, S. B. (2016). Examining the associations between HIV-related stigma and health outcomes in people living with HIV/AIDS: a series of meta-analyses. BMJ Open, 6(7), e011453. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2016-011453 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2016-011453

Sen, S., Nguyen, H. D., Kim, S. Y., & Aguilar, J. (2017). HIV Knowledge, Risk Behavior, Stigma, and Their Impact on HIV Testing among Asian American and Pacific Islanders: A Review of Literature. Social Work in Public Health, 32(1), 11–29. https://doi.org/10.1080/19371918.2016.1173612 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/19371918.2016.1173612

Sosodoro, O., Ahmad, R. A., Prabandari, Y. S., & Hakimi, M. (2017). Internal Stigma of an HIV-Infected Housewife: a Phenomenological Study. Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat, 13(2), 158–168. https://doi.org/10.15294/kemas.v13i2.9970 DOI: https://doi.org/10.15294/kemas.v13i2.9970

Stangl, A. L., Lloyd, J. K., Brady, L. M., Holland, C. E., & Baral, S. (2013). A systematic review of interventions to reduce HIV-related stigma and discrimination from 2002 to 2013: how far have we come? Journal of the International AIDS Society, 16(2), 18734. https://doi.org/10.7448/ias.16.3.18734 DOI: https://doi.org/10.7448/IAS.16.3.18734

Sugiyono. (2018). Metode Penelitian Kualitatif Untuk penelitian yang bersifat : eksploratif, enterpretif, interaktif dan konstruktif (3rd ed.; S. Y. Suryandari, Ed.). Bandung: Alfabeta.

Sugiyono. (2019). Metode Penelitian Kuantitatif Kualitatif dan R&D (2nd ed.; Sutopo, Ed.). Bandung: Alfabeta.

Tang, K., & Chen, W. T. (2018). HIV and religion in HIV-infected Asians and their families: A qualitative study. Applied Nursing Research, 44, 18–24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apnr.2018.09.003 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apnr.2018.09.003

Wang, W., Wang, Y., Xiao, C., Yao, X., Yang, Y., Yan, H., & Li, S. (2018). Psychological pathway to suicidal ideation among people living with HIV/AIDS in China: A structural equation model. Psychiatry Research, 260, 255–261. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2017.11.077 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2017.11.077

Woodgate, R. L., Zurba, M., Tennent, P., Cochrane, C., Payne, M., & Mignone, J. (2017). People try and label me as someone I’m not: The social ecology of Indigenous people living with HIV, stigma, and discrimination in Manitoba, Canada. Social Science and Medicine, 194(2), 17–24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2017.10.002 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2017.10.002

Yang, J. P., Simoni, J. M., Cheryan, S., Shiu, C. shi, Chen, W., Zhao, H., & Lu, H. (2018). The Development of a Brief Distress Reduction Intervention for Individuals Recently Diagnosed With HIV in China. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 25(2), 319–334. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpra.2017.08.002 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpra.2017.08.002

Yu, N. X., Chan, C. L. W., & Zhang, J. (2016). Dyadic effects of stigma and discrimination on distress in Chinese HIV discordant couples. AIDS Education and Prevention, 28(4), 277–286. https://doi.org/10.1521/aeap.2016.28.4.277 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1521/aeap.2016.28.4.277

How to Cite
Pamukhti, B. B. D., Erawati, M., Muniroh, M., & Dewi, N. S. (2021). EXPERIENCES OF PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS IN SURVIVING LIFE. Nurse and Health: Jurnal Keperawatan, 10(2), 292-303. https://doi.org/10.36720/nhjk.v10i2.293
Abstract viewed = 34 times
PDF downloaded = 25 times iThenticate Result downloaded = 2 times